Titrations need four things: sample, acid, base, and an indicator. You add acid to a base and indicator-infused sample and by knowing the exact volume of acid added to neutralize the basic solution and change from pink to blue, you can determine how much of a substance is in solution. Titrations are used to determine the total amount of hardness, calcium, and alkalinity in brewing water. This is important because too much hardness and alkalinity will affect the mash pH and could affect the quality of the final beer.
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